AQC internal quality control

Chemical analyses of surface freshwater have been one of the major areas of activity since the earliest years of existence of the Institute. Baldi's study of 1949 (Baldi 1949) which was a critical examination of over a decade of limnological and hydrochemical research on Lake Orta, and Vollenweider's 1965 study (Vollenweider 1965) entitled "Materials and methods for the water chemistry of the Insubrian waters", were incontestably in advance of their time as regards analytical activity, both in Italy and internationally. In addition, the study of Lake Orta and the other large subalpine lakes, whose size means that their monthly and annual hydrochemical variations are relatively small, led inevitably to the necessity for precision and accuracy in the chemical determinations if the analytical data were to remain comparable over time.

This demand for high quality analyses, which goes back to the origins of the Institute, meant that analytical activity has always been organised with the greatest care, both as regards the structure of the laboratory and analytical practice.

Quality controls used in the water chemistry laboratory of the CNR of Verbania are the following: